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Technical Notes

Table of equivalence

Lugand AciersAFNORENWNrDINAISI/SAE/STMGOSTJIS
Soft drawn
E24-2S235JRSt37-2
Semi hard drawn A60-2E335St60-2
Blue sheet metalXC75C751.17501075
LA 2067Y100C6100Cr61.2067L3
LA 1730XC48C45U1.1730104545S45C
LA 722542CD442CrMo41.722542CrMo4414040XSCM440H
LA 231240CMD8S40CrMoS8.61.231240CrMoS8.6P20+SP20
LA 231140CMD840CrMo71.231140CrMo7P20P20
LA HR30040CMD8Mod 40CrMo7Mod1.2311Mod40CrMo7ModP20Mod
LA 273840CMND8.640CrNiMo8.6.41.273840CrNiMo8.6.4P20+Ni
LA 400+40CMND8Mod40CrNiMo8.6.4 Mod1.2738Mod40CrNiMo8.6.4 ModP20+NiMod
LA 271455NCDV755NiCrMoV7 1.271455NiCrMoV76LF3
LA 2343 ESRHHE-Z38CDV5X38CrMoV5.1 ESR1.2343ESUX38CrMoV5.1 ESUH11ESR40X5 SKD6
SMV3O (LA2343O)E-Z38CDV5T X38CrMoV5.1 ESR1.2343ESUX38CrMoV5.1 ESUH11ESR40X5 SKD6
LA 276740NCD1645NiCrMo161.276745NiCrMo166F7
LA 2767ESRE-40NCD1645NiCrMo161.2767ESU45NiCrMo16 ESU6F7 ESR
819AWE-35NCD16H35NiCrMo16 ESR
LA 2343Z38CDV5X38CrMoV5.11.2343X38CrMoV5.1H1140X5 SKD6
LA 2343ESRE-Z38CDV5X38CrMoV5.1 ESR1.2343 ESUX38CrMoV5.1 ESUH11 ESR40X5 SKD6
LA 2344Z40CDV5 X40CrMoV5.11.2344X40CrMoV5.1H13SKD61
LA 2344ESRE-Z40CDV5X40CrMoV5.1 ESR1.2344 ESUX40CrMoV5.1 ESUH13 ESRSKD61
SMV3WE-Z38CDV5X38CrMoV5.1 ESR1.2343 ESRX38CrMoV5.1 ESUH11 ESR40X5 SKD6
ADC3WE-Z35CDV5X35CrMoV5.1 ESR1.2340 ESRX36CrMoV5.1 ESUH11 ESR ModH11 ESR Mod
ADC88E-Z36CDV5.2X35CrMoV5.2 ESR1.2367 ESR Mod
SMV5WE-Z50CDWV5X50CrMoWV5 ESR
LA 2085Z30CS16X33CrS161.2085 X33CrS16
LA 2099 Z7CS13X7CrS131.2099X7CrS13
LA 2083Z40C13X40CrMo141.2083X40CrMo1442040X13SUS420J2
LA 2316Z40CD16X40CrMo161.2316X40CrMo16420 Mod
XDBDWE-Z100CD17 X105CrMo17 ESR1.2083 ESUX40CrMo14 ESU420 ESR40X13SUS420J2
X15TNE-Z40CDVN16.2X40CrMoVN16.2 ESR1.3544 ESUX105CrMo17 ESU440C ESR
LA 4307Z2CN18.9X2CrNi18.091.4307X2CrNiMo18.09304L03X18H11SUS304L
LA 4404 Z2CND18.10X2CrNiMo 18.12.031.4404X2CrNiMo 18.12.03316L03X17H 14M3SUS316L
LA 7765 (GKH)32CDV1332CrMoV131.776532CrMoV13
LA 8509 (LK3)40CAD6.1240CrAlV6.121.850940CrAlV6.12
LA 2249 (V300) 45SCD645SiCrMo61.224945SiCrMo6
LA 16618NC5 18NiCr5.41.581016NiCr6
LA 216220MC521MnCr51.216221MnCr5 22K
LA 284290MCV890MnCrV81.284290MnCrV8O2
LA 2363Z100CDV5 X100CrMoV5.11.2363X100CrMoV5.1A2 SKD12
LA 2379Z160CDV12X153CrMoV121.2379X153CrMoV12D2SKD11
LA 3343Z85WDCV6.5.4.2HS 6.5.4.21.3343M2SKH51
LA 3247Z110DKCWV 9.8.4.2HS 4.9.2.81.3247M42
LAPM 818Z170CDV18.3HS 18.1.3
LAPM 2023Z130WDCV6.5.3HS 6.5.3 1.3395M3:2SKH53
LAPM 2030Z130WDCVK 6.5.3.8HS 6.5.3.8
LA 1050AA5-1050AAl99,53.0255Al99,51050A
LA 2017AU4G-2017AAlCu4MgSi3.1325AlCuMg12017A
LA 5083AG4-MC-5083AlMg4,5Mn3.3547AlMg4,5Mn5083
LA 70227022AlZn4,5Mg3Cu7022
LA 7075A-Z5GUP1AZ2- 7075AlZn5,5MgCu 3.4365AlZnMgCu1,57075
LA 7000C7000AlZn4,5Mg1,5
LA 5210CuC1CW004A2.0065C11000
LAKALW CuW75Cu25
LAITONUZ40Pb2CuZn40Pb22.0332CuZn40Pb2C37700
LAITONUZ40Pb3CuZn40Pb32.0375CuZn40Pb3C37700C3713
Bronze UE12PUE12PCuSn12C2.1052CuSn12C C90800
Bronze NC4UA10NCuAl10Ni5Fe42.0966CuAl10Ni5Fe4C63000

Symbols

 

Metallurgical state of martensitic steels

Factory-made heat treatments give martensitic steels a high-quality metallurgical state which allows for mechanical machining.
THERE ARE TWO MAIN DELIVERY OPTIONS:
• Annealed state
• Treated state
Each of these states requires the user to offer a range of suitable implementation measures.
• Annealed state: requires a quenching treatment and subsequent tempering after machining; in this case inevitable deforma- tions caused by the quenching operation must be anticipated and machining allowances must be left on the components, in order to achieve optimum treatment with respect to the structure of the steel.
It is also important to monitor the geometry of the parts before quenching and to avoid angles, in order to mitigate the risk of quenching cracks (relaxation of mechanical stresses causing superficial or deep open defects on the surface of the pieces).
• Treated state : allows for direct machining from the martensitic structure obtained at the factory. Its use is limited to the level of mechanical strength and hardness of the material.
In the tooling industry, these grades are pre-treated as much as possible to obtain a hardness of 400HB. At this value machining is still possible under good industrial conditions.
The technical information provided on the grade sheets is for general information; consult us in the case of a special requirement.

Equivalence of units of measure

Temperatures:
0 degrees Kelvin (0k) = -273 degrees Celsius (° C) = -459 degrees Fahrenheit.
0 degrees Celsius = 273 degrees Kelvin = 32 degrees Fah- renheit.
To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply the value by 9/5 and add 32.
To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32 from the value and multiply by 5/9.
Pressure; strengths:
Newton (N); Pascal (Pa); kilogramme-force (kgf)
1 Pa = 0,000001 N/mm2 = 0,0000001 kgf/mm2
1N/mm2 = 1 000 000 Pa = 1 MPa = 0,1 kgf/mm2
1 kgf/mm2 = 9,80N/mm2 (1 daN/mm2) = 9,80 MPa (10 MPa)
Measures:
Millimetre (mm); Inch (’’) 1 mm = 0,039370’’
1’’= 25,4 mm

Metallurgical information

Young’s Modulus: E
The elasticity modulus is the me- chanical deformation constraint required for an elongation of 100% of the initial length of a material.
Since this figure cannot be
achieved on solid materials, the
modulus of elasticity E is defined
by the straight slope of the
deformation curve where the latter is reversible. The unit of measurement is MPa or N / mm2.
Elastic limit: Re
Elongation: A %
Elongation is measured by a tensile test on a standard spec- imen and indicates the stretching deformation capacity of a material before breaking. The ratio is expressed in% between the nominal length and the last length of the specimen before rupture.


Poisson coefficient: V
The Poisson coefficient determines the perpendicular con- traction relative to the maximum pressure force exerted on a material; it has no unit of measurement.
The average value for steels is 0.3.

Density:
Density is the ratio of the volume mass of a body to that of pure water at 4 ° C and atmospheric pressure; it is expressed without unit of measure.


Expansion coefficient:
The coefficient of thermal expansion is a measure showing the variation of the volume of a material at 20° C and its volume at a different operating temperature (generally between 100 °C and 600 °C).


Thermal conductivity:
Thermal conductivity is a physical measurement which defines the energy transferred by a material in unit of area and time; it is expressed in watts per metre Kelvin.
This is defined by a tensile test on a standard specimen and indicates the linear elongation of a material between its revers- ible elastic limit and its breaking load.
The unit of measurement is MPa or N / mm2.
Mechanical resistance: Rm
This is measured by a tensile test on a standard specimen and indicates the breaking point of a material.
The unit of measurement is MPa or N / mm2.
Striction: Z %
Striction is the ratio expressed in% between the nominal sec- tion of the standard test piece and that of the last section of the test piece before failure.

Hardness correspondence

Metallurgical state of aluminium and its alloys

The metallurgical state of aluminium alloys is defined by a letter in block capitals which defines its basic state of physical and mechanical characteristics (heat treatment, mechanical treatment, heat and mechanical treatment); this letter is ac- companied by additional figures to subdivide the states according to requirement.
• F = Raw state of hot transformation with no guarantee of properties
• O = annealed state with optimum forming capacity.
• H = Hard state after work-hardening.
• T = quenched and tempered state (series 2000, 6000, 7000).

Purpose of polishing operations

Polishing is a general term for the group of operations which take place after surface machining of a support.
This support is generally metallic (base iron, copper, aluminium), but can also be mineral (glass) or synthetic (plastics) Polishing operations are mainly mechanical. They consist in attaining a homogeneous surface state upon a material support,
defined by criteria of geometry, roughness and visual reflection.

In order to obtain the final surface state of a part, a precise procedure must be followed (chronology, duration of sequences and direction of polishing) using a decreasing range of abrasives and supports.

The table below shows the relative equivalences between correspondences of NFE 05 051 standards; ISO / DIS 2632; the industrial name of the polishing operation; the roughness of the desired surface finishes and the average size of the abrasive particles used in order to obtain Ra.

Raw materials machining allowance

Machining allowance for tool steels:
Raw rolled or rough forged products generally present a decarburised, heterogeneous surface as well a layer of calamine un- suitable for use.

They thus require machining to remove a certain amount of material uniformly distributed on each face. NFA standards 45, 103 and NFA 104 define the minimum machining allowance to be applied to the nominal dimensions of round section, square section, flat and wide flat, non-pre-machined products.

As an indication, certain values are shown in the tables below.
Remarks: the failure to remove surface defects can lead to serious incidents during heat treatment (decarburisation, cracking, deformation, breaking), and after heat treatment (delayed failure on undetected defects).

General tolerances

Adjustment tolerances

Thread correspondence