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Technical Notes

Table of equivalence

Soft drawn
E24-2 S235JR St37-2
Semi hard drawn A60-2 E335 St60-2
Blue sheet metal XC75 C75 1.1750 1075
LA 2067 Y100C6 100Cr6 1.2067 L3
LA 1730 XC48 C45U 1.1730 1045 45 S45C
LA 7225 42CD4 42CrMo4 1.7225 42CrMo4 4140 40X SCM440H
LA 2312 40CMD8S 40CrMoS8.6 1.2312 40CrMoS8.6 P20+S P20
LA 2311 40CMD8 40CrMo7 1.2311 40CrMo7 P20 P20
LA HR300 40CMD8Mod 40CrMo7Mod 1.2311Mod 40CrMo7Mod P20Mod
LA 2738 40CMND8.6 40CrNiMo8.6.4 1.2738 40CrNiMo8.6.4 P20+Ni
LA 400+ 40CMND8Mod 40CrNiMo8.6.4 Mod 1.2738Mod 40CrNiMo8.6.4 Mod P20+NiMod
LA 2714 55NCDV7 55NiCrMoV7 1.2714 55NiCrMoV7 6LF3
LA 2343 ESRHH E-Z38CDV5 X38CrMoV5.1 ESR 1.2343ESU X38CrMoV5.1 ESU H11ESR 40X5 SKD6
SMV3O (LA2343O) E-Z38CDV5T X38CrMoV5.1 ESR 1.2343ESU X38CrMoV5.1 ESU H11ESR 40X5 SKD6
LA 2767 40NCD16 45NiCrMo16 1.2767 45NiCrMo16 6F7
LA 2767ESR E-40NCD16 45NiCrMo16 1.2767ESU 45NiCrMo16 ESU 6F7 ESR
819AW E-35NCD16H 35NiCrMo16 ESR
LA 2343 Z38CDV5 X38CrMoV5.1 1.2343 X38CrMoV5.1 H11 40X5 SKD6
LA 2343ESR E-Z38CDV5 X38CrMoV5.1 ESR 1.2343 ESU X38CrMoV5.1 ESU H11 ESR 40X5 SKD6
LA 2344 Z40CDV5 X40CrMoV5.1 1.2344 X40CrMoV5.1 H13 SKD61
LA 2344ESR E-Z40CDV5 X40CrMoV5.1 ESR 1.2344 ESU X40CrMoV5.1 ESU H13 ESR SKD61
SMV3W E-Z38CDV5 X38CrMoV5.1 ESR 1.2343 ESR X38CrMoV5.1 ESU H11 ESR 40X5 SKD6
ADC3W E-Z35CDV5 X35CrMoV5.1 ESR 1.2340 ESR X36CrMoV5.1 ESU H11 ESR Mod H11 ESR Mod
ADC88 E-Z36CDV5.2 X35CrMoV5.2 ESR 1.2367 ESR Mod
LA 2085 Z30CS16 X33CrS16 1.2085 X33CrS16
LA 2099 Z7CS13 X7CrS13 1.2099 X7CrS13
LA 2083 Z40C13 X40CrMo14 1.2083 X40CrMo14 420 40X13 SUS420J2
LA 2316 Z40CD16 X40CrMo16 1.2316 X40CrMo16 420 Mod
XDBDW E-Z100CD17 X105CrMo17 ESR 1.2083 ESU X40CrMo14 ESU 420 ESR 40X13 SUS420J2
X15TN E-Z40CDVN16.2 X40CrMoVN16.2 ESR 1.3544 ESU X105CrMo17 ESU 440C ESR
LA 4307 Z2CN18.9 X2CrNi18.09 1.4307 X2CrNiMo18.09 304L 03X18H11 SUS304L
LA 4404 Z2CND18.10 X2CrNiMo 18.12.03 1.4404 X2CrNiMo 18.12.03 316L 03X17H 14M3 SUS316L
LA 7765 (GKH) 32CDV13 32CrMoV13 1.7765 32CrMoV13
LA 8509 (LK3) 40CAD6.12 40CrAlV6.12 1.8509 40CrAlV6.12
LA 2249 (V300) 45SCD6 45SiCrMo6 1.2249 45SiCrMo6
LA 166 18NC5 18NiCr5.4 1.5810 16NiCr6
LA 2162 20MC5 21MnCr5 1.2162 21MnCr5 22K
LA 2842 90MCV8 90MnCrV8 1.2842 90MnCrV8 O2
LA 2363 Z100CDV5 X100CrMoV5.1 1.2363 X100CrMoV5.1 A2 SKD12
LA 2379 Z160CDV12 X153CrMoV12 1.2379 X153CrMoV12 D2 SKD11
LA 3343 Z85WDCV6.5.4.2 HS 1.3343 M2 SKH51
LA 3247 Z110DKCWV HS 1.3247 M42
LAPM 818 Z170CDV18.3 HS 18.1.3
LAPM 2023 Z130WDCV6.5.3 HS 6.5.3 1.3395 M3:2 SKH53
LA 1050A A5-1050A Al99,5 3.0255 Al99,5 1050A
LA 2017 AU4G-2017A AlCu4MgSi 3.1325 AlCuMg1 2017A
LA 5083 AG4-MC-5083 AlMg4,5Mn 3.3547 AlMg4,5Mn 5083
LA 7022 7022 AlZn4,5Mg3Cu 7022
LA 7075 A-Z5GUP1AZ2- 7075 AlZn5,5MgCu 3.4365 AlZnMgCu1,5 7075
LA 7000C 7000 AlZn4,5Mg1,5
LA 5210 CuC1 CW004A 2.0065 C11000
LAKAL W Cu W75Cu25
LAITON UZ40Pb2 CuZn40Pb2 2.0332 CuZn40Pb2 C37700
LAITON UZ40Pb3 CuZn40Pb3 2.0375 CuZn40Pb3 C37700 C3713
Bronze UE12P UE12P CuSn12C 2.1052 CuSn12C C90800
Bronze NC4 UA10N CuAl10Ni5Fe4 2.0966 CuAl10Ni5Fe4 C63000



Metallurgical state of martensitic steels

Factory-made heat treatments give martensitic steels a high-quality metallurgical state which allows for mechanical machining.
• Annealed state
• Treated state
Each of these states requires the user to offer a range of suitable implementation measures.
• Annealed state: requires a quenching treatment and subsequent tempering after machining; in this case inevitable deforma- tions caused by the quenching operation must be anticipated and machining allowances must be left on the components, in order to achieve optimum treatment with respect to the structure of the steel.
It is also important to monitor the geometry of the parts before quenching and to avoid angles, in order to mitigate the risk of quenching cracks (relaxation of mechanical stresses causing superficial or deep open defects on the surface of the pieces).
• Treated state : allows for direct machining from the martensitic structure obtained at the factory. Its use is limited to the level of mechanical strength and hardness of the material.
In the tooling industry, these grades are pre-treated as much as possible to obtain a hardness of 400HB. At this value machining is still possible under good industrial conditions.
The technical information provided on the grade sheets is for general information; consult us in the case of a special requirement.

Equivalence of units of measure

0 degrees Kelvin (0k) = -273 degrees Celsius (° C) = -459 degrees Fahrenheit.
0 degrees Celsius = 273 degrees Kelvin = 32 degrees Fah- renheit.
To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply the value by 9/5 and add 32.
To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32 from the value and multiply by 5/9.
Pressure; strengths:
Newton (N); Pascal (Pa); kilogramme-force (kgf)
1 Pa = 0,000001 N/mm2 = 0,0000001 kgf/mm2
1N/mm2 = 1 000 000 Pa = 1 MPa = 0,1 kgf/mm2
1 kgf/mm2 = 9,80N/mm2 (1 daN/mm2) = 9,80 MPa (10 MPa)
Millimetre (mm); Inch (’’) 1 mm = 0,039370’’
1’’= 25,4 mm

Metallurgical information

Young’s Modulus: E
The elasticity modulus is the me- chanical deformation constraint required for an elongation of 100% of the initial length of a material.
Since this figure cannot be
achieved on solid materials, the
modulus of elasticity E is defined
by the straight slope of the
deformation curve where the latter is reversible. The unit of measurement is MPa or N / mm2.
Elastic limit: Re
Elongation: A %
Elongation is measured by a tensile test on a standard spec- imen and indicates the stretching deformation capacity of a material before breaking. The ratio is expressed in% between the nominal length and the last length of the specimen before rupture.

Poisson coefficient: V
The Poisson coefficient determines the perpendicular con- traction relative to the maximum pressure force exerted on a material; it has no unit of measurement.
The average value for steels is 0.3.

Density is the ratio of the volume mass of a body to that of pure water at 4 ° C and atmospheric pressure; it is expressed without unit of measure.

Expansion coefficient:
The coefficient of thermal expansion is a measure showing the variation of the volume of a material at 20° C and its volume at a different operating temperature (generally between 100 °C and 600 °C).

Thermal conductivity:
Thermal conductivity is a physical measurement which defines the energy transferred by a material in unit of area and time; it is expressed in watts per metre Kelvin.
This is defined by a tensile test on a standard specimen and indicates the linear elongation of a material between its revers- ible elastic limit and its breaking load.
The unit of measurement is MPa or N / mm2.
Mechanical resistance: Rm
This is measured by a tensile test on a standard specimen and indicates the breaking point of a material.
The unit of measurement is MPa or N / mm2.
Striction: Z %
Striction is the ratio expressed in% between the nominal sec- tion of the standard test piece and that of the last section of the test piece before failure.

Hardness correspondence

Metallurgical state of aluminium and its alloys

The metallurgical state of aluminium alloys is defined by a letter in block capitals which defines its basic state of physical and mechanical characteristics (heat treatment, mechanical treatment, heat and mechanical treatment); this letter is ac- companied by additional figures to subdivide the states according to requirement.
• F = Raw state of hot transformation with no guarantee of properties
• O = annealed state with optimum forming capacity.
• H = Hard state after work-hardening.
• T = quenched and tempered state (series 2000, 6000, 7000).

Purpose of polishing operations

Polishing is a general term for the group of operations which take place after surface machining of a support.
This support is generally metallic (base iron, copper, aluminium), but can also be mineral (glass) or synthetic (plastics) Polishing operations are mainly mechanical. They consist in attaining a homogeneous surface state upon a material support,
defined by criteria of geometry, roughness and visual reflection.

In order to obtain the final surface state of a part, a precise procedure must be followed (chronology, duration of sequences and direction of polishing) using a decreasing range of abrasives and supports.

The table below shows the relative equivalences between correspondences of NFE 05 051 standards; ISO / DIS 2632; the industrial name of the polishing operation; the roughness of the desired surface finishes and the average size of the abrasive particles used in order to obtain Ra.

Raw materials machining allowance

Machining allowance for tool steels:
Raw rolled or rough forged products generally present a decarburised, heterogeneous surface as well a layer of calamine un- suitable for use.

They thus require machining to remove a certain amount of material uniformly distributed on each face. NFA standards 45, 103 and NFA 104 define the minimum machining allowance to be applied to the nominal dimensions of round section, square section, flat and wide flat, non-pre-machined products.

As an indication, certain values are shown in the tables below.
Remarks: the failure to remove surface defects can lead to serious incidents during heat treatment (decarburisation, cracking, deformation, breaking), and after heat treatment (delayed failure on undetected defects).

General tolerances

Adjustment tolerances

Thread correspondence