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Technical Notes
Table of equivalence
Lugand Aciers  AFNOR  EN  WNr  DIN  AISI/SAE/STM  GOST  JIS 
Soft drawn

E242  S235JR  St372  
Semi hard drawn  A602  E335  St602  
Blue sheet metal  XC75  C75  1.1750  1075  
LA 2067  Y100C6  100Cr6  1.2067  L3  
LA 1730  XC48  C45U  1.1730  1045  45  S45C  
LA 7225  42CD4  42CrMo4  1.7225  42CrMo4  4140  40X  SCM440H 
LA 2312  40CMD8S  40CrMoS8.6  1.2312  40CrMoS8.6  P20+S  P20  
LA 2311  40CMD8  40CrMo7  1.2311  40CrMo7  P20  P20  
LA HR300  40CMD8Mod  40CrMo7Mod  1.2311Mod  40CrMo7Mod  P20Mod  
LA 2738  40CMND8.6  40CrNiMo8.6.4  1.2738  40CrNiMo8.6.4  P20+Ni  
LA 400+  40CMND8Mod  40CrNiMo8.6.4 Mod  1.2738Mod  40CrNiMo8.6.4 Mod  P20+NiMod  
LA 2714  55NCDV7  55NiCrMoV7  1.2714  55NiCrMoV7  6LF3  
LA 2343 ESRHH  EZ38CDV5  X38CrMoV5.1 ESR  1.2343ESU  X38CrMoV5.1 ESU  H11ESR  40X5  SKD6 
SMV3O (LA2343O)  EZ38CDV5T  X38CrMoV5.1 ESR  1.2343ESU  X38CrMoV5.1 ESU  H11ESR  40X5  SKD6 
LA 2767  40NCD16  45NiCrMo16  1.2767  45NiCrMo16  6F7  
LA 2767ESR  E40NCD16  45NiCrMo16  1.2767ESU  45NiCrMo16 ESU  6F7 ESR  
819AW  E35NCD16H  35NiCrMo16 ESR  
LA 2343  Z38CDV5  X38CrMoV5.1  1.2343  X38CrMoV5.1  H11  40X5  SKD6 
LA 2343ESR  EZ38CDV5  X38CrMoV5.1 ESR  1.2343 ESU  X38CrMoV5.1 ESU  H11 ESR  40X5  SKD6 
LA 2344  Z40CDV5  X40CrMoV5.1  1.2344  X40CrMoV5.1  H13  SKD61  
LA 2344ESR  EZ40CDV5  X40CrMoV5.1 ESR  1.2344 ESU  X40CrMoV5.1 ESU  H13 ESR  SKD61  
SMV3W  EZ38CDV5  X38CrMoV5.1 ESR  1.2343 ESR  X38CrMoV5.1 ESU  H11 ESR  40X5  SKD6 
ADC3W  EZ35CDV5  X35CrMoV5.1 ESR  1.2340 ESR  X36CrMoV5.1 ESU  H11 ESR Mod  H11 ESR Mod  
ADC88  EZ36CDV5.2  X35CrMoV5.2 ESR  1.2367 ESR Mod  
SMV5W  EZ50CDWV5  X50CrMoWV5 ESR  
LA 2085  Z30CS16  X33CrS16  1.2085  X33CrS16  
LA 2099  Z7CS13  X7CrS13  1.2099  X7CrS13  
LA 2083  Z40C13  X40CrMo14  1.2083  X40CrMo14  420  40X13  SUS420J2 
LA 2316  Z40CD16  X40CrMo16  1.2316  X40CrMo16  420 Mod  
XDBDW  EZ100CD17  X105CrMo17 ESR  1.2083 ESU  X40CrMo14 ESU  420 ESR  40X13  SUS420J2 
X15TN  EZ40CDVN16.2  X40CrMoVN16.2 ESR  1.3544 ESU  X105CrMo17 ESU  440C ESR  
LA 4307  Z2CN18.9  X2CrNi18.09  1.4307  X2CrNiMo18.09  304L  03X18H11  SUS304L 
LA 4404  Z2CND18.10  X2CrNiMo 18.12.03  1.4404  X2CrNiMo 18.12.03  316L  03X17H 14M3  SUS316L 
LA 7765 (GKH)  32CDV13  32CrMoV13  1.7765  32CrMoV13  
LA 8509 (LK3)  40CAD6.12  40CrAlV6.12  1.8509  40CrAlV6.12  
LA 2249 (V300)  45SCD6  45SiCrMo6  1.2249  45SiCrMo6  
LA 166  18NC5  18NiCr5.4  1.5810  16NiCr6  
LA 2162  20MC5  21MnCr5  1.2162  21MnCr5  22K  
LA 2842  90MCV8  90MnCrV8  1.2842  90MnCrV8  O2  
LA 2363  Z100CDV5  X100CrMoV5.1  1.2363  X100CrMoV5.1  A2  SKD12  
LA 2379  Z160CDV12  X153CrMoV12  1.2379  X153CrMoV12  D2  SKD11  
LA 3343  Z85WDCV6.5.4.2  HS 6.5.4.2  1.3343  M2  SKH51  
LA 3247  Z110DKCWV 9.8.4.2  HS 4.9.2.8  1.3247  M42  
LAPM 818  Z170CDV18.3  HS 18.1.3  
LAPM 2023  Z130WDCV6.5.3  HS 6.5.3  1.3395  M3:2  SKH53  
LAPM 2030  Z130WDCVK 6.5.3.8  HS 6.5.3.8  
LA 1050A  A51050A  Al99,5  3.0255  Al99,5  1050A  
LA 2017  AU4G2017A  AlCu4MgSi  3.1325  AlCuMg1  2017A  
LA 5083  AG4MC5083  AlMg4,5Mn  3.3547  AlMg4,5Mn  5083  
LA 7022  7022  AlZn4,5Mg3Cu  7022  
LA 7075  AZ5GUP1AZ2 7075  AlZn5,5MgCu  3.4365  AlZnMgCu1,5  7075  
LA 7000C  7000  AlZn4,5Mg1,5  
LA 5210  CuC1  CW004A  2.0065  C11000  
LAKAL  W Cu  W75Cu25  
LAITON  UZ40Pb2  CuZn40Pb2  2.0332  CuZn40Pb2  C37700  
LAITON  UZ40Pb3  CuZn40Pb3  2.0375  CuZn40Pb3  C37700  C3713  
Bronze UE12P  UE12P  CuSn12C  2.1052  CuSn12C  C90800  
Bronze NC4  UA10N  CuAl10Ni5Fe4  2.0966  CuAl10Ni5Fe4  C63000 
Symbols
Metallurgical state of martensitic steels
Factorymade heat treatments give martensitic steels a highquality metallurgical state which allows for mechanical machining.
THERE ARE TWO MAIN DELIVERY OPTIONS:
• Annealed state
• Treated state
Each of these states requires the user to offer a range of suitable implementation measures.
• Annealed state: requires a quenching treatment and subsequent tempering after machining; in this case inevitable deforma tions caused by the quenching operation must be anticipated and machining allowances must be left on the components, in order to achieve optimum treatment with respect to the structure of the steel.
It is also important to monitor the geometry of the parts before quenching and to avoid angles, in order to mitigate the risk of quenching cracks (relaxation of mechanical stresses causing superficial or deep open defects on the surface of the pieces).
• Treated state : allows for direct machining from the martensitic structure obtained at the factory. Its use is limited to the level of mechanical strength and hardness of the material.
In the tooling industry, these grades are pretreated as much as possible to obtain a hardness of 400HB. At this value machining is still possible under good industrial conditions.
The technical information provided on the grade sheets is for general information; consult us in the case of a special requirement.
Equivalence of units of measure
Temperatures:
0 degrees Kelvin (0k) = 273 degrees Celsius (° C) = 459 degrees Fahrenheit.
0 degrees Celsius = 273 degrees Kelvin = 32 degrees Fah renheit.
To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply the value by 9/5 and add 32.
To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32 from the value and multiply by 5/9.
Pressure; strengths:
Newton (N); Pascal (Pa); kilogrammeforce (kgf)
1 Pa = 0,000001 N/mm2 = 0,0000001 kgf/mm2
1N/mm2 = 1 000 000 Pa = 1 MPa = 0,1 kgf/mm2
1 kgf/mm2 = 9,80N/mm2 (1 daN/mm2) = 9,80 MPa (10 MPa)
Measures:
Millimetre (mm); Inch (’’) 1 mm = 0,039370’’
1’’= 25,4 mm
Metallurgical information
Young’s Modulus: E
The elasticity modulus is the me chanical deformation constraint required for an elongation of 100% of the initial length of a material.
Since this figure cannot be
achieved on solid materials, the
modulus of elasticity E is defined
by the straight slope of the
deformation curve where the latter is reversible. The unit of measurement is MPa or N / mm2.
Elastic limit: Re
Elongation: A %
Elongation is measured by a tensile test on a standard spec imen and indicates the stretching deformation capacity of a material before breaking. The ratio is expressed in% between the nominal length and the last length of the specimen before rupture.
Poisson coefficient: V
The Poisson coefficient determines the perpendicular con traction relative to the maximum pressure force exerted on a material; it has no unit of measurement.
The average value for steels is 0.3.
Density:
Density is the ratio of the volume mass of a body to that of pure water at 4 ° C and atmospheric pressure; it is expressed without unit of measure.
Expansion coefficient:
The coefficient of thermal expansion is a measure showing the variation of the volume of a material at 20° C and its volume at a different operating temperature (generally between 100 °C and 600 °C).
Thermal conductivity:
Thermal conductivity is a physical measurement which defines the energy transferred by a material in unit of area and time; it is expressed in watts per metre Kelvin.
This is defined by a tensile test on a standard specimen and indicates the linear elongation of a material between its revers ible elastic limit and its breaking load.
The unit of measurement is MPa or N / mm2.
Mechanical resistance: Rm
This is measured by a tensile test on a standard specimen and indicates the breaking point of a material.
The unit of measurement is MPa or N / mm2.
Striction: Z %
Striction is the ratio expressed in% between the nominal sec tion of the standard test piece and that of the last section of the test piece before failure.
Hardness correspondence
Metallurgical state of aluminium and its alloys
The metallurgical state of aluminium alloys is defined by a letter in block capitals which defines its basic state of physical and mechanical characteristics (heat treatment, mechanical treatment, heat and mechanical treatment); this letter is ac companied by additional figures to subdivide the states according to requirement.
• F = Raw state of hot transformation with no guarantee of properties
• O = annealed state with optimum forming capacity.
• H = Hard state after workhardening.
• T = quenched and tempered state (series 2000, 6000, 7000).
Purpose of polishing operations
Polishing is a general term for the group of operations which take place after surface machining of a support.
This support is generally metallic (base iron, copper, aluminium), but can also be mineral (glass) or synthetic (plastics) Polishing operations are mainly mechanical. They consist in attaining a homogeneous surface state upon a material support,
defined by criteria of geometry, roughness and visual reflection.
In order to obtain the final surface state of a part, a precise procedure must be followed (chronology, duration of sequences and direction of polishing) using a decreasing range of abrasives and supports.
The table below shows the relative equivalences between correspondences of NFE 05 051 standards; ISO / DIS 2632; the industrial name of the polishing operation; the roughness of the desired surface finishes and the average size of the abrasive particles used in order to obtain Ra.
Raw materials machining allowance
Machining allowance for tool steels:
Raw rolled or rough forged products generally present a decarburised, heterogeneous surface as well a layer of calamine un suitable for use.
They thus require machining to remove a certain amount of material uniformly distributed on each face. NFA standards 45, 103 and NFA 104 define the minimum machining allowance to be applied to the nominal dimensions of round section, square section, flat and wide flat, nonpremachined products.
As an indication, certain values are shown in the tables below.
Remarks: the failure to remove surface defects can lead to serious incidents during heat treatment (decarburisation, cracking, deformation, breaking), and after heat treatment (delayed failure on undetected defects).